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Floe Foxon

Interdisciplinary Scientist



MSc Data Science (Statistics)
University of Leeds

BSc (Hons) Physics with Astronomy (1st Class)
University of Nottingham

Professional Certificate Data Science


Folk Zoology Society

Data Analyst

Data Analyst
Action on Smoking and Health

Undergraduate Research Fellow
Sanford Research


First Year Scholarship Award for Academic Achievement
University of Nottingham


As First Author

Foxon, F. (2024). Heuvelmans the Heretic: Cryptozoology as Heterodox and Orthodox Science. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews (under revisions).

Foxon, F. (2024). The (In)Convenience of Disappearing Evidence In Fringe Zoology. Skeptical Inquirer. Accepted, in press.

Foxon, F. (2024). How Much Iron Is In The Sun? Astronomy & Geophysics. Accepted, in press.

Foxon, F. (2023). How prevalent is liver injury attributed to turmeric? The American Journal of Medicine. Accepted, in press.

Foxon, F. (2023). Discordant device/brand reporting among adolescents who used e-cigarettes in the National Youth Tobacco Survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntad228

Foxon, F. (2023). Can Bayesian Statistics Be Used to Analyze Phenomena in Folk Zoology? Journal of Scientific Exploration. 37(3):570–571. https://doi.org/10.31275/20233065

Foxon, F., Shiffman, S. (2023). Comment on Wang et al. Consumption of JUUL vs. Other E-Cigarette Brands among U.S. E-Cigarette Users: Evidence from Wave 5 of the PATH Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 20(18):6715. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20186715

Foxon, F. (2023). The Moa the Merrier: Resolving When the Dinornithiformes Went Extinct. PCI Ecology. https://doi.org/10.1101/2023.08.07.552261

Foxon, F. (2023). Fast or Slow, How Long can Snakes Grow? Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society. 58(8):123–124. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/x46hd

Foxon, F. (2023). On the 32-Character Zodiac Cipher. Cryptology ePrint Archive. 2023/982. https://ia.cr/2023/982

Foxon, F. (2023). Re: “Impact of the e-cigarette era on cigarette smoking among youth in the United States: A population-level study”. Preventive Medicine. 164:107265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2023.107444

Foxon, F. (2023). If not a fake, what’s in the lake? The Skeptic. https://www.skeptic.org.uk/2023/06/whats-in-lake-champlain-analysing-historic-sightings-of-the-cryptid-known-as-champ/. Translated to German and republished in Skeptiker. https://www.gwup.org/zeitschrift-skeptiker/archiv/147-wurzel/archiv-zeitschrift-skeptiker/2426-zeitschrift-skeptiker-3-2023

Foxon, F. (2023). If it’s there, could it be a bear? Journal of Zoology (under revisions). https://doi.org/10.1101/2023.01.14.524058

Foxon, F. (2023). If it’s real, could it be an eel? JMIRx Bio. 1:e49063. https://doi.org/10.2196/49063

Foxon, F., Shiffman, S. (2022). Attribution of Use Characteristics to Electronic Cigarette Brands in the National Youth Tobacco Survey. Qeios. https://doi.org/10.32388/IRRATG

Foxon, F., Selya, A.S., Gitchell, J.G., Shiffman, S. (2022). Population-Level Counterfactual Trend Modelling to Examine the Relationship Between Smoking Prevalence and E-Cigarette Use among US Adults. BMC Public Health. 22:1940. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/y7r3d

Foxon, F. (2022). A treatise on the Rilke cryptogram. Cryptologia. 47(6):493–510. https://doi.org/10.1080/01611194.2022.2092784

Foxon, F. (2021). Correlations Between COVID-19 Cases, Test Positivity Rates, and Vaccinations in the United States. Qeios. https://doi.org/10.32388/QG3ALT

Foxon, F. (2021). Ammonoid Taxonomy with Supervised and Unsupervised Machine Learning Algorithms. PCI Paleontology. https://doi.org/10.31233/osf.io/ewkx9

Foxon, F. (2021). Evaluating Modern System Dynamics Software for Use in Astrophysical Simulations. Astronomy and Computing. 36:100486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ascom.2021.100486

Foxon, F. (2021). Estimating E-Cigarette Use Prevalence Among US Adolescents Using Vaping-Related Online Search Trends. Substance Use & Misuse. 56(10):1559–1563. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2021.1936054

Foxon, F. (2020). Finding Probable Frequency Sums to Reduce the Key Space of Homophonic Substitution Ciphers. Journal of Young Investigators. 38(1):1–5. https://doi.org/10.22186/jyi.38.1.1-5

Foxon, F. & Selya, A.S. (2020). Electronic Cigarettes, Nicotine Use Trends, and Use Initiation Ages among US Adolescents from 1999–2018. Addiction. 115(12):2369–2378. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.15099

As Coauthor

Selya, A.S., Kim, S., Shiffman, S., Gitchell, J.G., Foxon, F. (2023). What Substances Are Adolescents Vaping? Estimating Nicotine-Specific and Cannabis-Specific Vaping from US National Youth Surveys. Substance Use & Misuse. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2023.2267114

Selya, A.S., Foxon, F., Chandra, S., Nealer, E. (2023). Meta-Analysis of E-Cigarette Price Elasticity. F1000. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.129233.1

Juul Labs Inc., Foxon, F. (2022). Juul Lab’s Submission to the Call for Evidence on the Evaluation of the Legislative Framework for Tobacco Control. https://www.juullabs.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/07/Juul-Labs-Submission-to-the-Call-for-Evidence-on-the-Evaluation-of-the-Legislative-Framework-for-Tobacco-Control.pdf

Selya, A.S., Foxon, F. (2021). Response to Proposed Changes to the Netherland’s Tobacco and Tobacco Products Decree. https://www.internetconsultatie.nl/smaakjes/reactie/366b7013-8ee6-4411-bbba-f004509cbb7a

Selya, A.S., Foxon, F. (2021). Trends in Electronic Cigarette Use and Conventional Smoking: Quantifying a Possible “Diversion” Effect among U.S. Adolescents. Addiction. 116(7):1848–1858. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.15385

Peer Reviews and Responses

Post-Publication Review of ‘e-Cigarettes Used by Adolescents to Try to Quit Smoking Are Associated With Less Quitting: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National Youth Tobacco Survey’. https://pubpeer.com/publications/4867759DFBA472200944BF2B64881D#3

Post-Publication Review of ‘Occam’s Razor and Bayesian Measures of Likelihood Suggest Loch Ness Monsters Are Real Animals’. https://pubpeer.com/publications/654F5BDBD66100D2148E7ABE62F837#1

Post-Publication Review of ‘Consumption of JUUL vs. Other E-Cigarette Brands among U.S. E-Cigarette Users: Evidence from Wave 5 of the PATH Study’. https://pubpeer.com/publications/1FF8B75DFC81492DEBC8E214F63098#1

Response to Journal on ‘Population-level counterfactual trend modelling to examine the relationship between smoking prevalence and e-cigarette use among US adults’. https://pubpeer.com/publications/0C19CEA0C329F1C95FC0884C7A4AE1#2

Peer review of ‘Automatic identification and morphological comparison of bivalve and brachiopod fossils based on deep learning’. https://peerj.com/articles/16200/reviews/

Post-Publication Review of ‘Impact of the e-cigarette era on cigarette smoking among youth in the United States: A population-level study’. https://pubpeer.com/publications/9F3E9313EAE06ED991EE4834D69C8E#1

Post-Publication Review of ‘Use frequency and symptoms of nicotine dependence among adolescent E-cigarette users: Comparison of JUUL and Non-JUUL users’. https://pubpeer.com/publications/57A74561DC4B1B43B91E18A95A24A5#1


Foxon, F. (2023). Updated Population-Level Counterfactual Trend Modelling to Examine the Relationship between Smoking Prevalence and E-Cigarette Use among US Adults and Adolescents. Poster presentation at the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Europe (SRNT-E) Conference. London. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/rknxp

Foxon, F. (2022). Iron Abundance in the Solar Photosphere. Poster presentation at The National Astronomy Meeting (NAM) 2022. Coventry. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/z937r

Foxon, F. (2021) EVALI and the Internet. Video presentation at the Global Forum on Nicotine 2021. Virtual. https://youtu.be/Q9SXPm-W26M

Kleykamp, B.A. & Foxon, F. (2021) Comparing Smoking Prevalence, Quit Attempts, and Harm Perceptions Among Younger and Older Smokers. Poster presentation at the Annual Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT) Conference. Virtual. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/JR7EN

Foxon, F. & Selya, A.S. (2020). Electronic Cigarettes as a Method of Harm Reduction at the Population Level. Poster presentation at the Annual Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT) Conference. New Orleans. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/PQ4R6

Foxon, F. & Selya, A.S. (2019). Is Vaping a Gateway to Cigarettes? A Simulation Approach. Poster presentation at the Annual Sanford Research Summer Research Symposium. South Dakota.

Media Appearances

Junk e-cigarette study debunked (2023). The Snowdon Substack. https://snowdon.substack.com/p/junk-e-cigarette-study-debunked

Giant Moa “Sightings” Were Last Reported In 1993, When Did They Go Extinct? (2023). IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/giant-moa-sightings-were-last-reported-in-1993-when-did-they-go-extinct-71286

Floe Foxon Interview (2023). BBC Radio 5 Live (Colin Murray 02/10/2023). https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/m001r125

Authors file complaint with publisher as journal retracts vaping paper (2023). Retraction Watch. https://retractionwatch.com/2023/10/04/authors-file-complaint-with-publisher-as-journal-retracts-vaping-paper/

Seen Bigfoot or the Loch Ness Monster? Data suggest the odds are low (2023). ScienceNews. https://www.sciencenews.org/article/bigfoot-loch-ness-monster-data-pseudoscience

Medical Journal Retracts Vaping Study for Political, Rather than Scientific Reasons (2023). Tobacco Analysis. https://tobaccoanalysis.blogspot.com/2023/07/medical-journal-retracts-vaping-study.html

Exclusive: Public health journal says it will retract vaping paper for questions authors say were addressed in peer review (2023). Retraction Watch. https://retractionwatch.com/2023/07/27/exclusive-public-health-journal-says-it-will-retract-vaping-paper-for-questions-authors-say-were-addressed-in-peer-review/.

Data scientist suggests many Bigfoot sightings may be bear sightings (2023). Phys.org. https://phys.org/news/2023-01-scientist-bigfoot-sightings.html

Reports of Bigfoot rise when at least 900 black bears are in the area (2023). New Scientist. https://www.newscientist.com/article/2356845-reports-of-bigfoot-rise-when-at-least-900-black-bears-are-in-the-area/

The Loch Ness Monster Absolutely Can’t Be an Eel, Study Shows (2023). Popular Mechanics. https://www.popularmechanics.com/science/animals/a42574648/loch-ness-monster-what-is-it-study/

Unraveling the Loch Ness Monster’s Eel Connection (2023). JMIR Blog. https://blog.jmir.org/2023/07/24/unraveling-the-loch-ness-monsters-eel-connection/

A Statistical Analysis of the Rilke Cryptogram (2022). Cipherbrain. https://scienceblogs.de/klausis-krypto-kolumne/a-statistical-analysis-of-the-rilke-cryptogram/

On Stars, Ciphers, and Cigarettes (2020). University of Nottingham Blog. https://blogs.nottingham.ac.uk/physics/2020/07/31/on-stars-ciphers-and-cigarettes/

Contact and Socials

Email: ffoxon@pinneyassociates.com

ORCID: 0000-0002-4893-9178

ResearchGate: Floe_Foxon

Google Scholar: Floe Foxon

Twitter: @FloeFoxon